Mbabane: The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) has stated that over 82 million people have been forcibly displaced worldwide due to conflicts.
This is contained in its 2020 Global Trends report which has recently been published. The report states that the number of people forcibly displaced last year by wars, violence, persecution, and human rights violations has hit the highest record of 82.4 million people in 2020, 4% more than in 2019.
The report was released in line with the World Refugee Day, an international day designated by the United Nations to honour refugees around the globe which is celebrated each year on June 20 and celebrates the strength and courage of people who have been forced to flee their home country to escape conflict or persecution.
The report states that of the more than 82 million forcibly displaced, 26.4 million are refugees, who have crossed international borders in search of protection. Most of the rest are people displaced within their own countries because of conflict and violence.
This is the ninth consecutive year that forced displacement figures have continued to rise. Even lockdowns and border closures because of the coronavirus pandemic have not stopped people from fleeing for their lives in the face of war and atrocities.
The UN Refugee Agency has urged world leaders to step up their efforts to foster peace, stability, and cooperation in order to halt and begin reversing nearly a decade-long trend of surging displacement driven by violence and persecution.
The report states that despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of people fleeing wars, violence, and persecution, and human rights violations in 2020 rose to nearly 82.4 million people.
This is a further four percent increase on top of the already record-high 79.5 million at the end of 2019. The report shows that by the end of 2020 there were 20.7 million refugees under UNHCR mandate, 5.7 million Palestine refugees, and 3.9 million Venezuelans displaced abroad. Another 48 million people were internally displaced (IDPs) within their own countries.
A further 4.1 million were asylum-seekers. These numbers indicate that despite the pandemic and calls for a global ceasefire, conflict continued to chase people from their homes. “Behind each number is a person forced from their home and a story of displacement, dispossession, and suffering.
The UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Filippo Grandi said the displaced people need attention and support not just with humanitarian aid, but in finding solutions to their plight.
While the 1951 Refugee Convention and the Global Compact on Refugees provide the legal framework and tools to respond to displacement, Grandi said there is a need for much greater political will to address conflicts and persecution that force people to flee in the first place.
Girls and boys under the age of 18 accounts for 42 percent of all forcibly displaced people. They are particularly vulnerable, especially when crises continue for years.
New UNHCR estimates show that almost one million children were born as refugees between 2018 and 2020. Many of them may remain refugees for years to come. “The tragedy of so many children being born into exile should be reason enough to make far greater efforts to prevent and end conflict and violence,” said Grandi.
The report also notes that at the peak of the pandemic in 2020, over 160 countries had closed their borders, with 99 States making no exception for people seeking protection. Yet with improved measures – such as medical screenings at borders, health certification or temporary quarantine upon arrival, simplified registration procedures and remote interviewing, more and more countries found ways to ensure access to asylum while trying to stem the spread of the pandemic.
While people continued to flee across borders, millions more were displaced within their own countries. Driven mostly by crises in Ethiopia, Sudan, Sahel countries, Mozambique, Yemen, Afghanistan, and Colombia the number of internally displaced people rose by more than 2.3 million.
Over the course of 2020, some 3.2 million IDPs and just 251,000 refugees returned to their homes –a 40 and 21 percent drop, respectively, compared to 2019. Another 33,800 refugees were naturalized by their countries of asylum. Refugee resettlement registered a drastic plunge – just 34,400 refugees were resettled last year, the lowest level in 20 years – a consequence of a reduced number of resettlement places and Covid-19.
“Solutions require global leaders and those with influence to put aside their differences, end an egoistic approach to politics, and instead focus on preventing and solving conflict and ensuring respect for human rights,” said Grandi.